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Inherited Metabolic Disorders

June 15, 2013

metabolic disordersInherited metabolic disorders are genetic circumstances that result in metabolism problems. Most people with inherited metabolic circumstances have a faulty gene that results in an enzyme deficiency. There are thousand varieties of genetic metabolic disorders; accordingly their symptoms, therapies and prognosis differ commonly.


Metabolism represents all the substance reactions going on in the body to use energy. A few significant illustrations of metabolism include:

  • Breaking down the carbohydrate food, necessary protein and fats in food to release energy.
  • Transforming excess nitrogen into waste materials excreted in urine.
  • Breaking down or transforming substances into other ingredients and moving them inside tissues.

Metabolism is an organized but disorder substance that set up range. Raw components, half-finished products and waste materials are constantly being used, produced, transferred and excreted. The “workers” on the assembly line are enzymes and other necessary proteins that make chemical reactions may happen.

Causes of Inherited Metabolic Disorders:

In most metabolic conditions, only a single enzyme is either created or not by one’s body at all, or is produced in a type that doesn’t work. The losing enzyme is like an absentee worker on the assembly line. Based on that enzyme’s job, it indicates deficiency, harmful substances may develop up, or an important product may not be created.

The rule or strategy to generate an enzyme is usually included on a couple of genetics. Most people with inherited metabolic conditions acquire two defective copies of the gene  one from each parent. Both parents are “carriers” of the bad gene, significance they carry one defective copy and one regular copy.

Types of Inherited Metabolic Disorders:

Hundreds of metabolic conditions have been recognized, and new ones continue to be found. Some of the more typical and essential inherited metabolic conditions include:

1) Lysosomal storage disorders: Lysosomes are areas within tissues that break down waste materials of metabolism. Various enzyme inadequacies within lysosomes can result in accumulation of harmful ingredients, causing metabolic conditions including:

  • Hurler problem (abnormal bone framework and developing delay)
  • Niemann-Pick disease (babies develop liver organ enlargement and nerve damage)

We have embedded the power point presentation for this topic:

Inherited metabolic disorders from OMICS Group | International Science Conferences


June 13, 2013

RhabdomyolysisRhabdomyolysis is a serious problem caused due to an immediate or oblique muscular damage. It results from breakdown of muscular tissues and release of their material into the bloodstream. This can cause many problems such as kidney (renal) failing. This happens when the kidney system cannot remove the waste and concentrated urine. In unusual situations, rhabdomyolysis can even cause loss of life. However, an immediate treatment often delivers a good result.

There are three different kinds of muscular in an individual body:

  • Smooth muscle,
  • Skeletal muscle, and
  • Heart muscle

Rhabdomyolysis Causes:

There are many causes of rhabdomyolysis. The most typical causes include:

  • The use of liquor or unlawful medication such as cocaine or amphetamines.
  • Excessive muscular stress, especially in someone who is an inexperienced sportsman. This can happen in elite athletes too, however. And it can be more risky if there is more muscular to break down.
  • Crush damage such as from an auto incident, drop or building collapse.
  • Long-lasting muscular pressure such as that due to relaxing subconscious on a hard area during sickness or while under the impact of liquor or medication.
  • The use of drugs such as corticosteroids or statins, especially when given in high doses.

Rhabdomyolysis Signs and Symptoms:

The following are common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis:

  • Painful, swollen, bruised or soft areas of the body
  • Muscular weak point or trouble in moving hands or legs
  • Common emotions of illness
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • High temperature or lack of consciousness
  • Dark-colored urine; decreased or no urine output

Early complications of rhabdomyolysis include very high levels of potassium in the blood. This can cause an irregular pulse rate or heart attack. About one in four also develop issues with the liver organ. Later, rhabdomyolysis can also lead to renal failing. This occurs in about 15% of sufferers. A condition called compartment syndrome may also occur either early or later. This serious compression of nerve fibres, veins, and muscles can cause injury and issues with blood circulation.


June 12, 2013

Anencephaly is a condition present at initial stages, that impacts the growth of the brain and the skull bone fragments that encompass the head. Anencephaly results in only minimal growth of the brain. Often, the brain does not have a part or the entire cerebrum (the area of the brain that is accountable for thinking point of view, listening to, touch, and movement). There is no bone protecting over the back of the head and there may also be missing bone fragments around the front and sides of the head.

Causes of Anencephaly:

AnencephalyAnencephaly is a kind of neural tube defect. Neural tube defects happen in about one of 1,000 child birth in the US each year.

During maternity, the human brain and spine begin as a smooth plate of tissues, which rolls into a tube, known as the neural tube. If all or a part of the neural tube is not able to close, leaving an opening, this is known as an open neural tube defect, or ONTD. This initiation may be left revealed (80 % of the time), or protected with bone or skin (20 % of the time).

Anencephaly and spina bifida are the most typical ONTDs, while encephaloceles (where there is a protrusion of the brain or it covers through the skull) are much more uncommon.

Symptoms of Anencephaly:

  • Lack of bones protecting over the back of the head
  • Missing bone fragments around the front and sides of the head
  • Folding of the ears
  • Cleft palate
  • Congenital heart defects
  • Some primary responses, but without the cerebrum, there can be no awareness and the child cannot survive.

Treatment for new born babies suffering with Anencephaly:

Until now, there is no treatment or standard therapy for anencephaly. If treatment exists, it would be very helpful. Because experiencing the loss of a child can be very distressing. Grief counseling services are available to help you deal with the loss of your child.

Blood Clots in Brain

June 11, 2013

blood clot in brainA blood clot in the brain can cause an Ischemic stroke, a stroke that is caused by an artery to the brain becoming obstructed and a part of the brain of oxygen and nutrients being starving. A clot in the brain can also cause an increase of cellular waste and co2, because the brain will not be able to clear this waste properly. This can cause the cells around the obstacle to die, and the nerves in this part of the brain stop working, which can cause damage throughout the body. If you suppose that you have a blood clot in the brain, immediate treatment is necessary to avoid a deadly condition.

Causes of Blood Clots in Brain:

  • Head injuries or trauma to the mind, head and neck can cause these clots to form in the brain. Blood clotting in the brain are caused when swelling occurs between the skull and the mind. The body will form a clot to stop the swelling, which will put pressure on the surrounding mind tissue. Trauma to the head can also cause blood clots formed outside of the mind to break, become loose and lodged in the mind, which can cause an ischemic stroke.
  • Traveling clots from other areas of the body to a blood vessel results in blockage of mind, that can lead to an embolic stroke or cerebral embolism. These travelling clots are more likely to cause damage to other areas of the body before they reach the mind.
  • Narrowing or hardening of the arteries, commonly known as atherosclerosis can increase somebody’s weakness to develop a clot in the brain. Solidified arteries are at risk of tearing as they push blood vessels, which can cause a clot to form in the broken area, so that blood vessels do not flow into the body. These clots can stop blood circulation to the simplified artery, causing damage to the surrounding cells.
  • Swelling of a superficial vein can also cause an increased risk of blood clotting. If a vein is damaged due to a high trauma injury, it can become infected. An infection in the vein can also cause this type of inflammation which will reduce the blood circulation to the surrounding parts of the body.

We have embedded Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation for this topic:

Blood Clots in Brain from OMICS Group

How Soft Drinks Impact Your Health

June 6, 2013

soft drinksSoft drinks flavor good, and can be relaxing, give us an energy increase, but they may ruin our bodies, especially our immune system.  Most soft beverages are high in calories, sugar but low in nutritional value. They contain caffeinated beverages, carbonation, simple carbs or worse, low calorie substitutes and often food additives such as artificial coloring, flavor, and additives.

After a lot of research, it was found that consumption of soft drinks in high quantity, especially by children, is accountable for many health issues that include tooth decay, health reduction, being overweight, type-2 diabetic issues and cardiovascular disease.

Side-effects of soft drinks:

  • Obesity
  • Increase in blood pressure
  • Threat of heart disease
  • Behavioral changes
  • Tooth decay

Most soft drinks contain the following:

  • High fructose corn syrup
  • Aspartame
  • Caffeine
  • Phosphoric acid
  • Citric acid
  • Artificial flavors
  • Filtered water

Are Soft drinks good for health?

One of the main concepts, why carbonated beverages may have side effects on our bodies is that the high focus of fructose sweetening and phosphoric acidity may cause calcium loss and damage our bone fragments.  Large quantities of fructose can also increase the levels of triglycerides in blood vessels fat, which can lead to diabetic issues and possibly cardiovascular illness.

All soft drinks are acidic and along with their carbs, help to rust and remove our teeth.  Since soft drinks mainly consist of filtered water, synthetic preservatives and enhanced sugar, they lack the healthy value and only add calories to our diet.

Diet drinks those with synthetic sweetners and other sweetening – do not increase your calorie consumption, but they can make you have craving for food, not to mention that the sugar substitutes are anything but good for you.  Everything you put into your system encourages a chemical reaction in your body.

We have embedded the power point presentation for this topic:

How soft drinks impact your health from OMICS Group | International Science Conferences

Shaken Baby Syndrome

June 3, 2013

Shaken baby syndrome represents a type of damage caused to the brain that happens when a child is shaken violently. Trembling can cause bleeding in the brain (subdural hemorrhages) or blood loss in the retinas (retinal hemorrhages). Additional damage happens when the shaken child is thrown down onto a surface, leading to shaken impact syndrome.

When a kid is shaken, the mind bounces back and forth against the edges of the head. Infants’ leads are very huge and heavy in proportion to the relaxation of their bodies. This causes inflammation, bruising and blood loss in the brain.

The potential repercussions of shaking babies include:

  • Brain damage
  • Blindness
  • Hearing loss
  • Speech and studying conditions, such as psychological retardation
  • Seizures
  • Neck and vertebrae harm
  • Death

Symptoms of shaken baby syndrome:

  • Excessive depression
  • Vomiting
  • Poor appetite
  • Breathing complications
  • Convulsions (seizures)
  • Lethargy
  • Pale- or blue-colored skin

Risks of shaken baby syndrome:

shaken baby syndrome

Shaken baby syndrome happen in the majority of babies up to one season, with the infant’s outdated two to several weeks being most at danger. It does not usually occur after the age of two, but kids as old as five or six can be broken in this way if the shaking is tremendously aggressive.


Medical care providers do not always know the truth about whether or not, trembling has engaged in an injury. Also, infants and very small children cannot tell physicians or nurses what occurred or what affects they had. Many signs of SBS (such as depression, nausea, or lethargy) are also common for minimal circumstances like viral infections.

It has been recommended that physicians should use additional assessments when an injury seems to be possible. X-rays can show skull injuries and physicians may recommend magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments or computed tomography (CT) tests. Special attention should be given for the proof of retinal blood loss (bleeding at the back of the eyes).

Strep Throat Complications

June 1, 2013

strep throat complicationsStrep throat, also known as streptococcal pharyngitis, is the most frequent bacterial throat infection. Because most sore throats are due to viruses, strep must be clinically identified by having a test that finds the use of bacteria. Once the illness is clinically diagnosed, strep is typically treated with medications. While anyone can contract strep throat, it mainly impacts children and adolescents between the age groups of 5 and 15.

Problems of strep throat are unusual but can occur, especially if strep throat is not properly handled with medications. Problems can be related either to the strep disease or to our body’s immune response to the disease.

Although unusual, problems can result from the strep disease growing to other parts of the body. Infection can propagate to the:

  •  Middle ear
  •  Sinusitis

Other, more unusual problems include:

  • Disease behind the pharynx
  • Infection of the lymph nodes
  • A peritonsillar abscess
  • Toxic shock syndrome

Problems related to the body’s immune response to strep bacteria:

Sometimes in reaction to a strep infection, the body’s mechanisms will attack healthy cells, causing problems such as rheumatic high temperature, swelling of the kidneys (glomerulonephritis), which are associated with streptococcal attacks (PANDAS).

In unusual situations, without treatment strep may lead to increase in rheumatic fever. Anti-biotic treatment started 9 days after the strep disease started avoiding rheumatic fever.

Glomerulonephritis may happen after affecting with a disease with certain strains of strep bacteria. These attacks may include a strep disease of the skin (such as impetigo) usually during summer season time, or the throat (such as strep throat) usually during the winter season. The condition is relatively unusual and goes away without any therapy. But problems may be created that may require therapy. Treatments for strep disease may not avoid swelling of the kidneys.

Cardiac Arrest

May 31, 2013

Cardiac arrest occurs when your heart prevents circulating blood around the body. The most common cause of a cardiac arrest is a debilitating abnormal heart rhythm called ventricular fibrillation. It is also identified as cardiopulmonary arrest. It is different from heart attack (myocardial infarction), where blood circulation to the continuous beating of heart is interrupted.

cardiac arrestArrested blood flow stops rescue of oxygen to ”all” the parts of the body. Cerebral hypoxia or lack of oxygen supply to the brain, cause sufferers to lose awareness and stop normal respiration. Injury to the brain is likely if cardiac arrest is without treatment for more than five minutes, although new treatments such as induced hypothermia have begun to improve this time. To improve survival and nerve recovery, immediate response is critical.

Cardiac arrest is a medical emergency. In certain groups of sufferers, it is often reversible if handled early enough. When surprising cardiac arrest leads to loss of life, this is called sudden cardiac death (SCD).

Causes of Cardiac Arrest:

  • Less amounts of blood
  • Lack of oxygen
  • If the person’s body is very hot or very cold
  • Clotting of blood in the lungs or coronary arteries

Is Cardiac Arrest different from Heart Attack?

Cardiac arrest is totally different from heart attack. A cardiac arrest happens when your heart prevents pumping blood around the body. As a result you will be subconscious and will not be able to take respiration normally. Immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation is needed to have any chance of success.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR):

Unless someone begins cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the person is affected with long lasting harm to the brain and other body parts.

CPR means:

Chest compression (pumping the heart by exterior cardiac massage), to keep the flow going until the emergency vehicle comes and Rescue breathing (inflating the respiratory system by using mouth-to-mouth resuscitation).

We have embedded the power point presentation for this topic:

Cardiac Arrest from OMICS Group

Typhoid & its Treatment

May 30, 2013

typhoid feverTyphoid fever is a serious illness that can cause loss of life. It is brought on by a bacteria known as Salmonella typhi, and is propagated most often through infected food or water. Typhoid may also be propagated by person-to-person or by getting in touch with infected persons, such as occurs with persons residing in the same household. Some infected persons do not appear to be fed up, but they can still spread the bacteria to others.


People with typhoid or paratyphoid, high temperature may experience severe or light signs. The signs may include high temperature, headache, general pain and a lack of appetite. Some people have spots on the back area of the body. For typhoid fever, signs generally begin 8 to 14 times following disease but possibly as early as 3 days or as late as over 60 days after disease. For paratyphoid fever, gastroenteritis may begin 1 to 10 times following the disease. Some individuals do not have any signs.

How the disease spreads?

The microorganisms that cause typhoid fever are found in the faces of contaminated persons. Some people often known as carriers keep on bringing the bacteria even after signs have developed. Transmitting the disease typically happens when faecally-contaminated water and food are consumed.

Risks & Preventive Measures:

Typhoid fever is extensive in most areas of the world except for the developed areas. In Australia, typhoid and paratyphoid fever almost always happen in overseas travellers.

  • Wash hands cautiously with soap.
  • Avoid lightly cooked food.
  • Prefer boiled water only.
  • Avoid outside food.

Diagnosis & Treatment:

 To identify typhoid and paratyphoid fever, your doctor or local medical center will send a blood or stool sample to a lab for examining.

Typhoid or paratyphoid fever is handled with antibiotics. Some individuals may never have signs but may be providers of typhoid or paratyphoid. Anti-biotic therapy is needed to cure carriers also.

Measles & its Treatments

May 28, 2013

Measles is a highly contaminated illness caused by a virus. It begins with a high temperature that takes a couple of days to cure .The virus stays in the mucus of the nasal area and also in the neck of the people suffering with this infection. Physical contact, coughing and sneezing can spread the disease. In addition, contaminated droplets of mucus can remain active and contagious for around two hours.

Symptoms of Measles

measlesOnce the person is affected with the virus, the virus starts spreading in the back of the neck and in lungs and then spreads throughout the body. The most typical signs of measles are:

  • High temperature
  • Dry cough
  • Tiredness and pains
  • Diarrhoea and vomiting

Most children suffering with this disease feel better within 10 days. A frustrating coughing may continue to persist for several days after other symptoms have disappeared. The immune system creates antibodies during the disease. These fight off the virus and then provide long term immunity. It is therefore unusual to have more than one bout of measles.

Complications of Measles

Problems are more likely found in kids, with a bad immune system, such as those suffering with leukemia or HIV, those who are malnourished, kids less than five years and grownups. Many kids in the world die when they get measles, usually from a secondary pneumonia. There are still periodic reports of kids in the UK who die from complications of measles. These kids have usually not been immunised.

Common complications are:

  • Eye infection
  • Laryngitis
  • Ear infection
  • Infections of the airway such as bronchitis


There is no particular medicine that destroys the measles virus. Treatment is designed to convenience signs until your immune mechanisms clears up the infection. For most situations, bed rest and simple measures to decrease a high temperature are all that are needed for a full restoration. Symptoms will usually vanish within 7-10 days.

  • Drink water as much as you can to prevent dehydration.
  • Paracetamol or ibuprofens can relief fever and aches.