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Volcanic Eruption Prediction

March 23, 2013

Introduction:

The Prediction of volcanic eruptions is challenging because, to be of realistic use, they must be created before eruptions it’s a lot simpler to see patterns in tracking information after an eruption has happened.

Volcanologists and seismologists who observe effective volcanoes have incorporated several techniques to monitor the condition of an effective volcanic. The key substances in this incorporated strategy are: seismic monitoring, gas monitoring, and deformation research.

A image displaying the Volcanic EruptionsSeismic monitoring includes implementing a system of portable seismometers around the volcanic. The seismometers are able of discovering rock movement in the Earth’s crust area. Some rock movements may be associated with the increase of magma beneath awareness volcanic. Volcanologists that observe gases often use a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) that actions sulfur dioxide (SO2) in plumes increasing out of volcanic craters. An increase in SO2 may indicate an increase in magma near the Earth’s surface.

Predicting Volcanic Eruptions:

Active Volcano to volcanologists is a volcano that has proven eruptive action within recorded history.

•             Currently there are about 600 volcanoes on World.

•             50 to 60 of volcanoes actually erupt every year.

Extinct Volcano is a volcano that has not proven any historic activity, is usually greatly worn away, and reveals no signs of latest action.

Dormant Volcano (sleeping volcano) is somewhere between effective and vanished.  An dormant volcano is one that has not proven eruptive action within recorded history, but reveals geologic proof of action within the geologic recent past.

Short term Predictions on Volcanic Monitoring:

Volcanologists use many different kinds of tools such as equipment that identify and record tremors (seismometers and seimographs), equipment that measure ground deformation (EDM, Leveling), equipment that identify and evaluate volcanic gases (COSPEC), equipment that determine how much lava is moving underground (VLF, EM-31), video and still cameras, infra-red cameras, satellite TV imagers, webcams, etc!

Seismic Exploration and Tracking – The seismic waves are produced by both earthquakes and explosions, and since S-waves cannot pass through fluids, arrays of seismographs can be placed around a volcanic.

Changes in Magnetic field- Stones contain minerals such as magnetite that are magnetic.  Such magnetic minerals produce a magnetic field.  However, the above temperature is known as the Curie temperature.

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