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Drug Recognition Techniques

July 12, 2013
drug dependence

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Drug recognition methods are procedural and consistent evaluation methods for detecting the symptoms of drug addiction. All the areas analyzed are observable physical reactions to specific types of drugs. Three key elements used in the process are

  • Confirming that the individual’s physical reactions vary from normal.
  • Ruling out a cause that is not related to medication.
  • Using analytic techniques to figure out the classification or combination of substances that are likely to cause the impairment.

Drug recognition methods include the recognition of the type of chemical substances ingested, although it is not possible to recognize specific medication within a classification. These methods can figure out whether the youth is currently under the impact of ingredients or has used a particular drug or combination of medication within 72 hours of ingestion. However, it is not possible to figure out the amount of the material consumed.

Use of drug recognition methods provides immediate results with which the youth can be confronted. These methods are non-invasive in discovering illicit medication use, compared with the anthology of body required for urinalysis. The process is regular and consistent, reducing the possibility of bias or mistake by trained staff.

There are 12 steps in drug recognition process:

  • Drug history
  • Breath alcohol test
  • Healthcare psychophysical tests
  • Medical questions and initial observations
  • Evaluation of hypodermic injection sites
  • Evaluation of vital  signs
  • Darkroom examination
  • Evaluation of the eyes
  • Youth’s claims and extra findings by staff
  • Opinions of the evaluator
  • Toxicological examination

Chemical Testing:

Chemical testing is the most invasive and expensive method among the three techniques of determining illegal medication use; however, it is also the most precise method. Several scientific techniques are available for discovering illegal medication use in individuals, such as urinalysis, blood research, hair analysis, and saliva assessments. However, saliva and breathing research for liquor and urinalysis for drugs other than liquor are the techniques currently suggested because they are efficient and relatively affordable when compared to other techniques of chemical testing.

Chemical reaction is shown in the name of the test:

  • Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
  • Latex agglutination immunoassay (LAIA)
  • Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)

Human Brain Development

July 10, 2013
baby brain

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The process of brain development has assisted humans in understanding more about the tasks both genes and the environment play in our growth. This indicates that genetics predisposes us to create in certain ways. But our communications with other people have an important effect on how our predispositions are indicated. In fact, research now reveals that many capacities thought to be set at birth, are actually dependent on a sequence of encounters along with heredity. Both aspects are important for the best possible growth of human brain.

Newborn brain

The raw material of the brain is the nerve cell, known as the neuron. When kids are born, they have nearly all the neurons they will ever have, more than 100 billion of them. The study indicates some neurons are designed after beginning and become healthy with maturity.

During fetal growth, nerves are designed and motivated to form various parts of the brain. As the nerves distinguish, they begin to “specialize” in reaction to chemical signals. This process of growth happens sequentially from the “bottom up,” that is, from the more basic segments of the brain to the more innovative segments. The initial places of the brain to completely develop are the brainstem and midbrain; they regulate the physical processes necessary for life, known as the autonomic functions. At beginning, these lower portions, the neurological system are very well developed.

Newborns’ brains allow kids to do many things, such as breathe, eat, sleep, see, listen to, fragrance, make noise, feelings, and recognize the people close to them. But the majority of brain development and growth occurs after birth, particularly in the higher brain areas involved in regulating feelings, language. Each region controls its allocated features through complicated procedures, often using chemical messengers (such as neurotransmitters and hormones) to help transfer information to other parts of the brain and body.

Biomedical Therapy

July 5, 2013

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Biomedical therapies are physical or medical treatments such as drug treatment, electroconvulsive treatment (electroshock), or surgery treatment (i.e lobotomy) that are used to cure psychological or emotional conditions. Modern health treatment contains many examples of drug therapies; antidepressant medications, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, etc. Due to effective drug therapies, electroshock and lobotomies are used significantly less often than in the past.

Biomedical treatments include drug treatment, electroconvulsive treatment, and psychosurgery.

biomedical-therapyPsychopharmacotherapy, is designed to cure emotional conditions with medications. Drug therapy is usually along with other kinds of psychiatric therapy. The main group of drugs used to cure emotional conditions are antianxiety medication, antidepressant, and antipsychotics.

Antianxiety drugs

Antianxiety drugs include a type of medication known as benzodiazepines, or tranquilizers. Two widely used benzodiazepines are known by the brand names Valium and Xanax. The common titles of this medication are diazepam and alprazolam, respectively.


Benzodiazepines reduce the action of the neurological system by improving the action of GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mind. Benzodiazepines take effect almost right after they are applied, but their effects last just a few hours. Psychiatrists recommend these drugs for anxiety attacks.

Side effects:

Side effects may include sleepiness, light-headedness, dry mouth, depression, vomiting and nausea,  insomnia, diarrhoea, heart palpitations, nasal blockage, and blurry vision. Benzodiazepines can also cause drug dependancy. Tolerance can occur if a person takes these drugs for a long period, and withdrawal symptoms often appear when the medication use is discontinued.

Electroconvulsive Therapy

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used mainly for the therapy of serious depressive disorders. Electrodes are placed on the individual’s, over the temporary lobes of the brain. Anaesthetics and muscular relaxants help reduce pain of an individual. Then an electric current is applied for about one second. The affected person has a convulsive seizure and becomes subconscious.

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Are Sleeping Pills Harmful

July 3, 2013

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Sleeping pills are “sedative hypnotics.” This is a particular type of drugs used to generate and/or sustain sleep. Sedative hypnotics consist of benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and various hypnotics.

Benzodiazepines such as Xanax, Ativan, and Librium are anti-anxiety medicines. They also improve sleepiness and help individuals sleep. While these drugs may be useful only for short-term, all benzodiazepines are possibly addictive.

Barbiturates, another drug in this sedative-hypnotic class, depress the neurological system and can cause sleep or sedation. Short- or long-acting barbiturates are recommended as sedative drugs or sleeping pills. But more generally, these hypnotic drugs are restricted to use as anesthesia.

More recent developed medicines help in decreasing the time, required to get sleep. These sleep-inducing medication, such as Lunesta, Sonata, and Ambien, are said to be non-habit developing. They work easily to improve sleepiness and sleep. Rozerem functions in a different way compared to other sleeping medications and is not habit-forming. Halcion is an older sedative-hypnotic medication, that has been mostly changed by newer medication.

Side Effects of Sleeping Pills

sleeping-pillsSleeping pills have unsympathetic reactions like other medicines.

Typical side effects of prescribed sleeping pills such as Lunesta, Sonata, Ambien, Rozerem, and Halcion may include:

  • Losing or tingling in the arms, or legs
  • Changes in appetite
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Problems in maintaining balance
  • Dizziness
  • Drowsiness
  • Dry oral cavity or throat
  • Gas
  • Headache

The FDA needs manufacturers of Ambien and Zolpimist to provide reduced amounts for females. Women clear the medication from their techniques more gradually than men and the organization says blood vessels stages of the medication could still be high enough in the following morning to impact actions that require performance, such as driving. The FDA says physicians should provide the reduced amount to men too.

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Types of Leukemia

June 27, 2013

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Leukemia is the cancer of blood vessels or bone marrow (which produces blood cells). A person who has leukemia suffers from an abnormal production of blood vessels tissues, generally leukocytes (white blood vessels cells).

types of leukemiaThe DNA of premature blood vessels, mainly white blood cells, gets broken in some way. This problem causes the blood vessels tissues to grow and split chaotically. Normal bloods cells die after a while and are changed by the new blood cells which are produced in the bone marrow. The abnormal blood cells do not die so easily, and acquire, taking up more and more place. As most of the area is filled by these defective blood cells, there is less area for the normal tissues – and the victim becomes ill.

Types of Leukemia:

Chronic and Acute

Professionals split the leukemia illness into four large categories, each of which can be acute, and is a quickly advancing illness that results in the build up of immature, ineffective tissues in the bone marrow and blood, or serious, which advances more gradually and helps in creating  mature and useful cells.

Lymphocytic and Myelogenous

If the cancer transformation happens in the bone marrow that makes lymphocytes, the illness is called lymphocytic leukemia illness. A lymphocyte is a kind of white blood cell inside your vertebrae immune system. If the cancer change happens in the kind of marrow tissues that go on to produce red blood cells, other types of white cells, and platelets, result in the illness called myelogenous leukemia illness.

The four main types of leukemia are:

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), also known as Acute Lymphoblastic leukemia disease. This is the most common type of leukemia seen among youngsters, although grownups can get it as well, especially those over the age of 65.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) – This is most typical among grownups over 55, although younger adults can get it as well. CLL hardly ever impacts children.

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) – AML is more common among grownups than children, and impacts men considerably more often than women. Patients suffering with this type of leukemia are handled with radiation treatment.

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) – Many sufferers are grownups. 90% of handled sufferers survive for over 5 years. Gleevec (imatinib) is widely used to cure CML, as well as some other medication. Chronic monocytic leukemia disease is a subtype of CML.

Delusions and Hallucination

June 25, 2013

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Hallucinations and delusions are signs of Alzheimer’s illness and other dementias. With hallucinations or delusions, individuals do not encounter symptoms, as they really are.

HallucinationDelusions are false beliefs. Even if you provide proof about something to the individual with dementia, the person will not change her perception. For example, an individual with dementia may have a delusion in which she believes someone else is residing in her home when she actually lives alone. Delusions can also be knowledgeable by means of paranoid beliefs, or blaming others for factors that have not occurred.

Hallucinations are wrong views of things or events relating to the feelings. They seem real to the person suffering from the disorder, but cannot be confirmed by anyone else. Hallucinations are a false perception that can result in either good or bad experiences.

Typical hallucinations include:

  • Feeling some of the physical emotions, which are an activity of inner organs.
  • Some of the hearing voices when nobody has spoken. These voices may be critical, complimentary, neutral, or may command someone to do something that may cause harm to themselves or to others.
  • Smelling a foul or pleasant odor.


The main causes of hallucinations are:

  • Delirium or dementia
  • Epilepsy that includes a part of the mind known as the temporary lobe.
  • Fever
  • Narcolepsy

Responding to Delusions and Hallucinations

  • Try to figure out if he has any problems with listening to or vision.
  • Make sure that illumination is adequate.
  • Make sure that a person is eating a well-balanced diet program.
  • Try to make the environment comfortable.
  • Do not get angry with her behavior, and prevent disagreeing her words. You will not win a discussion with the individual who is having a hallucination or delusion. Keep in mind, the hallucinations and delusions are very genuine to her.
  • Examine doubts that may be depending on reality. It’s possible that he really could be a victim.

Different types of Influenza Virus

June 22, 2013

OMICS Publishing Group is an open access publishing group from where we can acquire the scientific information which is with free of cost. OMICS also conducts scientific conferences across the world. There are three different kinds of influenza virus – A, B, and C. Type A viruses contaminates people and different kinds of animals, including birds, pigs, and horses. Type B influenza is normally found only in humans, and type C is mostly seen in people, but has also been found in pigs and dogs sometimes. Influenza epidemics are due to type A viruses, and therefore these are the most terrifying kind of influenza virus; neither types B or C have triggered pandemics.

Type A influenza is further categorized into subtypes based on which versions of two different necessary proteins are existing on the outer lining area of the virus. These necessary proteins are known as hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). There are 16 different versions of HA and 9 different editions of NA. The influenza A subtypes are further categorized into strains, and the names of the virus strains consist of the position where the strain was first discovered and the year of development.

About Influenza Virus:

Influenza_virusInfluenza virus has a rounded form and has a part of spikes on the outside. There are two different types of spikes, each created of different proteins – one is the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins and the other is the neuraminidase (NA) proteins. The HA proteins allows the virus to adhere to a cell, so that it can enter into a host cell and begin the disease procedure (all malware need to get into tissues to help them create more copies of themselves).

How Influenza Virus Change:

Influenza virus is one of the most adjustable viruses known. There are two methods that influenza virus changes – these are known as drift and shift. Drifting, or antigenic drift, is a constant, ongoing change that happens when the malware makes small “mistakes” when copying its genetic information. This can result in a minor distinction in the HA or NA necessary protein. Although the changes may be little, they may be important enough so that the individual immune mechanisms will no more identify and protect against the changed necessary protein.